Cooling Essentials: Does AC Still Use Freon?

Written by: Aaron Patterson
October 14, 2023
Cooling Essentials: Does AC Still Use Freon?

Air conditioners have long relied on refrigerants to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures. Freon, a trademarked refrigerant, has been a pivotal player. But with evolving environmental concerns and regulations, has its role shifted? Dive into the intricacies of air conditioning refrigerants and discover the current stance on Freon's utilization.

What Is Freon?

Freon, a popular term in the air conditioning world, refers to refrigerants used in cooling systems. As a crucial component in air conditioning units, freon levels are vital to understanding its functionality and the potential risks it poses to the environment.

What Is the Purpose of Freon in Air Conditioning Units?

Freon serves a significant role as a refrigerant in air conditioning units. Its main job is to absorb heat from the air within the unit and release it outside. This action results in the circulation of cooler air back into the home. Freon effectively facilitates heat transfer through evaporation and condensation, making your living spaces comfortable during sweltering days.

Types of Refrigerant Used in Air Conditioners

As technological advancements and environmental consciousness have converged, the refrigerants used in air conditioning units have witnessed significant transformations. Historically, these refrigerants played a pivotal role in cooling systems, but their environmental repercussions have necessitated change.

R-22 Refrigerant

R-22, colloquially known as Freon, was the cornerstone of air conditioning refrigerants for decades. This chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) became popular due to its cooling efficiency and affordability. However, its dark side emerged when studies highlighted its detrimental effects on the ozone layer.

Freon's ability to break down ozone molecules contributed to the growing hole in the ozone layer, leading to intensified ultraviolet rays reaching Earth, causing many environmental issues. This revelation led international bodies to introduce regulations that kick-started its phaseout. By 2020, the production and use of R-22 were rendered illegal in many parts of the world, marking the end of an era.

Common Alternatives to R-22 Refrigerant

The void left by R-22's phaseout paved the way for newer, environmentally friendly refrigerants. Among these, R-410A emerged as the front-runner. Known by various trade names such as Puron, SUVA 410A, GENERATION AZ-20, and Forane, R-410A offered comparable cooling capabilities but minimal environmental repercussions.

This hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) lacks chlorine, making it less harmful to the ozone layer. As a testament to its eco-friendly nature, appliances manufactured post-January 1, 2010, predominantly adopted R-410A as their refrigerant of choice.

The Impact on the Ozone Layer

The relationship between air conditioning refrigerants and the ozone layer has always been a concern. Freon's dominance in the market and its subsequent identification as an ozone-depleting substance became pivotal in the push toward sustainable cooling solutions. The environmental ramifications of using such substances extend beyond mere temperature increases.

They can lead to issues like skin cancers and cataracts in humans and profound ecological impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It underscores the pressing need for the global community to embrace alternative, eco-friendly refrigerants, ensuring that our quest for comfort doesn't come at the planet's expense.

Identifying a Freon Leak in Air Conditioners

Detecting and addressing Freon leaks is crucial to maintaining your unit's efficiency and ensuring your health and safety.

Signs of a Refrigerant Leak

A refrigerant leak in your AC system might manifest as warm air and low airflowinflated electricity bills, or even noisy AC system operations. Physical symptoms like dizziness or nausea might even indicate refrigerant exposure, known as refrigerant poisoning.

How to Locate and Repair a Refrigerant Leak

The first step is identifying signs of a refrigerant leak, such as warm air output, increased bills, or a louder-than-usual AC system. Once these signs are recognized, use pressure gauges, inspect the refrigerant lines and components, and check for oily stains or residue to pinpoint the leak. Fixing it might involve replacing damaged parts, sealing the leak, and recharging the system with the correct refrigerant.

Maintaining Proper Refrigerant Levels

For optimal AC performance, it's vital to ensure proper refrigerant levels. Low levels can diminish your AC unit's efficiency. Regular inspections, identifying and rectifying leaks, and necessary repairs are crucial to maintaining these levels.

The Crucial Role of Adequate Refrigerant Levels in Air Conditioning Units

The refrigerant in an air conditioning unit plays an indispensable role in its efficient operation. Maintaining correct refrigerant levels is not merely recommended but is a vital factor for the unit's longevity and optimal performance. A dip in these levels can cascade into a series of problems, compromising both the functionality and durability of the AC system.

Compromised Efficiency Due to Reduced Refrigerant Levels

An immediate consequence of low refrigerant levels is the noticeable decline in the system's cooling efficiency. Such a shortfall forces the AC unit to labor more intensively, leading it to run longer cycles to achieve the desired room temperature.

This inefficiency diminishes the unit's cooling capacity and results in escalated energy consumption, manifesting in higher electricity bills. Moreover, the undue strain placed on the system can precipitate wear and tear on its internal components, endangering the overall health of the unit. Thus, monitoring and addressing refrigerant levels become paramount to safeguard the AC's peak performance.

It's important to know that the evaporator coil plays a crucial role in operating a central air conditioner. As the system circulates the common refrigerant, the evaporator coil is responsible for absorbing the heat from the indoor air, thus cooling it.

As the refrigerant travels through this coil, it transforms from a liquid to a gaseous state, effectively removing warmth and providing the desired temperature inside the space. A well-maintained evaporator coil ensures the central air conditioner operates efficiently and optimizes refrigerant.

Compressor Damage: A Dire Consequence of Inadequate Refrigerant Levels

The compressor, often dubbed the 'heart' of the AC unit, is particularly vulnerable to the ramifications of low refrigerant levels. Operating with insufficient refrigerant exerts undue stress on the compressor, exponentially increasing its risk of malfunction or outright failure. Warning signs of a compromised compressor include strange noises during operation, a stark reduction in cooling output, and frequent on-off cycling.

The repercussions of compressor damage can be severe, often necessitating costly repairs or replacements. Therefore, regular inspections and prompt rectification of refrigerant leaks are beneficial and essential to preserving the compressor's integrity and ensuring the extended lifespan of the air conditioning system.

Preventing Freon Leaks in Your AC Unit: A Crucial Guide

The efficient operation of your air conditioning system largely hinges on the integrity of its components and the correct levels of refrigerant. Freon, a widely recognized refrigerant, provides the desired cooling. However, leaks in this component can inflate energy bills and pose potential health risks.

Emphasizing Consistent Maintenance and Checks

One cannot underscore enough the importance of sustained maintenance and checks. Overlooking the minutest signs can culminate in substantial repair costs due to undetected Freon leaks. These leaks compromise the unit's efficiency and heighten the environmental concerns associated with this particular refrigerant. 

The Imperative of Routine Inspections

While homeowners might be tempted to bypass regular check-ups, especially when the AC seems to function without hitches, the wisdom lies in proactive measures. Engaging with a skilled HVAC technician for, at the very least, an annual inspection can prove invaluable.

These professionals are trained to spot early indications of wear and tear or any failing equipment. By rectifying potential issues like fixing minor leaks or replacing vulnerable components, homeowners can preempt more extensive damages, thus ensuring their system operates at peak performance while also realizing long-term cost savings.


1. What is freon?

Freon is a refrigerant used in air conditioning units and has historically been instrumental in cooling systems for decades.

2. Why was R-22 refrigerant banned?

R-22 was banned due to its ozone-depleting properties, which posed significant environmental threats and accelerated the degradation of the ozone layer.

3. What are the signs of a refrigerant leak?

Signs include warm air output, increased energy bills, and a noisy AC system, alongside a noticeable decline in the overall cooling efficiency of the unit.

4. What are the alternatives to R-22 refrigerant?

Alternatives to R-22 include R-410A and other ozone-friendly refrigerants designed to offer efficient cooling without adverse environmental impacts.

5. How can one detect and address a freon leak?

Detecting a Freon leak often requires specialized equipment and expertise, and upon detection, it's imperative to engage an HVAC technician to ensure safe and proper repairs.


While Freon played a vital role in air conditioning units, its environmental impact led to the advent of more ozone-friendly refrigerants. Proper maintenance, regular inspections, and timely repairs ensure optimal AC performance and protect the environment.

If you're looking into geothermal installers and want to know more about their benefits and where to find the best service installers near you, read through our blogs at HVAC of America to know more.

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